The Bronze age collapse and you

Now firstly you may be thinking “What does the bronze age collapse have to do with me or the current world environment?”

More than you think it does.

The bronze age collapse occurred about 1200 BC after flourishing since 3000 BC, a period of 1800 years.

This was the single largest collapse of civilization known.

The important bronze age civilizations were centered in the area from modern-day Turkey, Iran, Iraq all the way south to Egypt.

The bronze age was the time just before the world power in the near east shifted to Greece and the fading empire of Egypt, which then moved to Rome and Carthage. Obviously the bronze age was based on bronze an alloy (mixture of) Tin (~10%) and Copper (~90%). Copper was quite common in the region of the fertile crescent but the tin ores were mined out quite fast requiring extensive trade networks to acquire it. Bronze was used for weapons and armor, allowing war as well as trade to be the mechanism used to acquire it. The trade networks to acquire the scarce tin extended all the way from Egypt to Brittan (which was actually named after its tin ores). It is believed that the bronze age trade networks were almost global, spanning at least 3 continents, Asia, Africa, and Europe, this can be demonstrated by the types of precious stones found  in the artistic styles of bronze age civilizations and other items that must have been sourced from very far away.

Bronze:

Bronze was first discovered by accident from smelting copper ore with arsenic impurities. different levels of arsenic impurities created soft or hard or brittle bronzes as the arsenic impurities increased. The smarter metallurgists of the time realized that by grading the bronze from soft to hard they could then remelt the high arsenic bronze 10% with the low arsenic bronze 1% to get  the best bronze 5%. Arsenic is of course toxic to the metallurgist  (causing paralysis)and eventually the metallurgists used tin instead of arsenic. All this smelting consumed large quantities of wood in an arid environment so supply caravans also had to source wood as well as tin  requiring extensive trade to create bronze, another way empires controlled bronze. Importantly bronze needed to be cast (poured molten into a mold) to create items, this required a lot of specialized artisans (including the mold maker) working together to create bronze items. This made bronze unlike iron which followed it.  Manufacture and distribution of bronze weapons and armor could be controlled by a hierarchy, the bronze armed soldiers could control everything else.

Bronze by its nature could be controlled, and it allowed control of populations. He who controlled bronze had total control of their society.

Iron:

Iron can simply be refined and shaped with just three tools, fire, a hammer and water which could be done alone and in isolation. Iron ores were common and impurities weren’t such a large factor in the production of the low quality steel needed to make swords. Iron did not need to be cast like bronze, it could simply be heated and hammered into shape then plunged into water to keep it hard. Iron didn’t generally contain toxic impurities like arsenic so it was safer to experiment with. Tin was not needed to make iron or steel. the most common impurity in the iron was carbon from the fires used to create it, carbon actually made the iron into carbon (mild) steel which was harder than iron.

Iron could not be controlled, it was too plentiful and too easy to make once the secret was discovered.

A scene from bronze age Europe. Five men are engaged in the complex process of smelting and casting bronze into a sword.  from http://fineartamerica.com/featured/bronze-age-granger.html

A scene from bronze age Europe. Five men are engaged in the complex process of smelting and casting bronze into a sword.
from http://fineartamerica.com/featured/bronze-age-granger.html

Bronze age society and politics

For much of the bronze age different states warred with each other, small empires expanded and contracted, rose and fell, merged or were taken over, one thing remained constant, bronze was the weapon and amour of the professional soldier. The professional soldier was charioteer dressed in heavy bronze chain mail, charioteers worked in a pair on each chariot. One charioteer was the driver armed with only a large knife and a few throwing spears, the other charioteer was an archer with the same knife and a bow with arrows. Chariot wars were quite a spectacle chariots and arrows going in all directions, eventually a chariot would become disabled and the runners would come. Runners were the mercenary army of  poorly armed ( non salaried ) peasants that would charge to a disabled chariot and swarm and kill the crew, who were too laden down with heavy armor to outrun the swarm. Each army would have their own army of runners, runners generally didn’t fight each other, they just attacked disabled enemy chariot crews. The Chariots themselves were expensive so were well out of the reach of the local peasant. All of the high technology weaponry was expensive and controlled.

Society was highly stratified with a large number of slaves, peasant farmers with smaller numbers of artisans and soldiers and at the top very small numbers of  aristocracy and royalty. This system was in place for  thousands of years and a real civilization sprung up along with it. The full extent technology of the Bronze age will likely never be known, only hinted at. The explosion in knowledge from this time period is quite staggering. Writing, Law, Stone architecture, Mathematics, complex society, pottery, metallurgy, coinage, irrigation, Navigation,the plow… The Egyptians inherited much of their civilization for the Bronze age near east civilizations, every innovation they had was simply imported from Sumer and its neighbors. Not all parts of the world experienced the bronze age, some societies were forced to wait for iron , either the bronze technology wasn’t available or the cost of tin and copper was just too high. The end of the bronze age wasn’t the end for bronze as a useful material it still had applications in swords but a cheaper alternative became available for the masses. Technology and knowledge for the masses was a hallmark of the iron age, the simplified phonetic alphabet of the Phoenicians was modified and adopted by Greece and later Rome, as it was a  simpler (less elitist) system than the hieroglyphic based system that were popular in the bronze age societies.

So what went wrong?

Several things all occurring at  about the same time.

Strangely no long-term bronze supply problems. Though a short-term supply issues may have created problems. Bronze is still plentiful today. Today bronze is about 1% of the price of silver of the same weight. So to this day, no bronze shortage. Today’s prices (February 2013) in  troy ounces (31.1 grams) and US $:

Silver $30.18  Bronze $0.33 Copper $0.27  Tin $0.82.

Bronze age collapse conditions

Environmental problems/ agricultural degradation  – Soil salination , Deforestation
After thousands of years of irrigation and deforestation soils became salty and less productive, sometimes non productive. Even today not an easy problem to fix, it required digging up all the soil and washing it in fresh water and then placing it all back in the ground. Remember this series of empires was built on agriculture and held together with military might and  control of bronze weapons. Because Bronze needed to be smelted and then cast vast quantities of wood were needed to be burned for this process. The region was deforested and in the process became more arid and this amplified the soil salination problem and droughts.

Natural disasters  – Earthquakes
For a period of 70 years before the collapse a series of major earthquakes occurred in the northern part of the fertile crescent. It became costly to repair a large amount of damage in agriculturally declining state without a war of conquest. Earthquake damage to major cities would have disrupted  major trade routes at the center of the Bronze age empires.

Destabilizing technology  – Development of iron smelting
Iron smelting, a relatively simple process took away the control of hard metal away from hierarchies. Now anyone could make a sword (and possibly armor) and many people made the Naue type II sword. Iron rich rocks could simple be heated in a large fire to create the pure iron, Iron once created could be beaten into shape with another fire and a hammer. Hot iron could be quenched ( hot iron put into cold water) to increase its hardness.  Iron ores were plentiful, iron working quite easy compared to bronze casting, and people were angry.

Naue II sword. The first popular sword of the Iron age. From http://www.templeresearch.eclipse.co.uk/bronze/images/Naue_II_for_sale.jpg

Naue II sword. The first popular sword of the Iron age.
From http://www.templeresearch.eclipse.co.uk/bronze/images/Naue_II_for_sale.jpg

Economic changes – Iron economy
The development of iron as a replacement for bronze would have disrupted bronze economies. As trade routes  changed and previously profitable businesses, town and entire infrastructure became marginal because of competition with the iron economy and products. The change to iron would have caused significant social upheaval. Imagine a centuries old industry with all its vested interests suddenly coming into competition where none existed before. Huge monopolies would have collapsed.

A period of extended peace – The Pax
For about 100 years (1300BC – 1200BC approx) there were no wars between major powers, leaving the mercenary armies with little money and growing ranks, and states reluctant to attack each other to solve economic problems.
Peasants weren’t accustomed to fighting against peasants from neighboring states and were more likely to see them as friends and not enemies, perhaps seeing their own greedy faltering state as a real enemy.

Complex extensive trade networks
As an economy develops there is a chance it will become too specialized and too reliant on monopolies. If critical monopolies fail, the entire structure of the economy can fail. Needing tin from Britain, a break in the supply line could be disastrous, could there have been a tin and/or bronze supply monopoly that failed, leading to a collapse?

Catastrophe design – Centralized power and control
With just a hand full of states all located in a relatively small geographic region having the majority of power, any small localized event could destroy the entire empire. Apart from Egypt all the power and grandeur of the bronze age was located in the east and north. A calamity in the center restricting trade would be disastrous. Egypt’s major contribution to the empires was slaves and food, once the flow of theses resources was restricted a collapse was inevitable.

Map of the near east Bronze age civilizations  just 50 years before collapse. This region was the Centre of power for north Africa, the near east and much of Europe.

Map of the near east Bronze age civilizations just 50 years before collapse. This region was the Centre of power for north Africa, the near east and much of Europe.

Social upheaval – Sea people and civil unrest
All of these factors lead to a group of people called the sea people forming a large army (armed with home-made iron swords) and sweeping through the region from north to south basically destroying everything in their path and collecting more recruits from the disenfranchised populous destroyed cities (many of which had already been damaged by earthquakes in the preceding decades). The sea peoples traveled by small civilian ships frequently but fought on land. Because the sea people destroyed almost every thing. There are few records of exactly who they were or their exact path of destruction. Like the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima, Nagasaki had no idea of imminent danger, the devastation in Hiroshima so complete, that no one was alive and credible enough to recount the event. Many cities had no warning the sea people were coming. Any one likely to have told them was either dead or had joined the sea people. One thing is known, The Egyptians had learned of them before they arrived and battled them at sea and destroyed their army. Afterward Egypt had lost its major bronze age trading partners and went into decline. Looking at the map of the central bronze age civilizations it seems that the sea peoples attacks cut the empire in half, cutting Egypt away and destroyed all the trade routes to Egypt. Catastrophe design in trade networks. the Sea people were the catalyst for the complete overthrow of the bronze age empires.

Addition: Likely identity of the sea people; Aegean Greeks.

Research seem to point to a confederation of Greek sea going pirates from the Aegean sea. Several thing point to this. The early Greeks would have had access to Iron from Azarwa or Hatti in modern day Turkey. Their homeland was made from many small islands which made them good sailors and sea travel was normal for most people. The large number of islands would make a perfect place for pirates to hide their loot and ships and forma natural barrier to invaders or reprisals.  Sailing into uncharted island chains is hazardous as reef (rock or coral) can easily destroy invading ships. Tales from he Iliad effectively tell of the raids the Aegean Greek pirates did in the Mediterranean. The pattern of raid match the sea people raiding from the north and then clockwise around the Levant until finally reaching Egypt when all other the loot had been picked clean. The sea people most likely followed the coast line and didn’t require complex navigation and hence made longer and longer journeys hugging the coastline until finally reaching  and being defeated by the Egyptians. It likely the original Sea People added other nations and even refugees to the pirate confederation as the raids continued so it became not just one ethic group doing the raiding to confuse matters for historians further. The tales from the Iliad span several generations which seem to mirror the transition period from Bronze age to Iron age. Some island settlements in the region show special defenses against sea borne attack having  bee created on mountain tops with difficult to see trails leading up. Such a settlement would be quite impractical unless a pirate raid was a serious risk, this of course points to pirate raids being a serous problem for an extended period of time. The land based raid (possibily supported by sea going vesssels) seem to fan out from the city of Troy in more or less the same direction as the sea based raids supporting the idea of one localized confederation being the source of the pirate raids.

The Sea Peoples and their invasions into the Bronze age civilizations. While no-one is certain where they came from, Cyprus is one of the possibilities.   From http://www.tagmata.it/the_human_wave_that_toppled_the.htm

The Sea Peoples and their invasions into the Bronze age civilizations. While no-one is certain where they came from, Cyprus is one of the possibilities.
From http://www.tagmata.it/the_human_wave_that_toppled_the.htm

Transition
In the approximately 70 years following the bronze age collapse there was no real order any where, just groups of despots with militias attempting to take what ever they could, where ever it was. 70 years at the time would have been
about 2 new generation of people growing up in the chaos of transition from Bronze to Iron, in a world where ancient empire once controlled everything, now everything was uncontrolled. Then Greece and Phoenicia started to form as the first iron age empires, on the north-western and western outskirts of the former bronze age fertile crescent. The rest of history since the Greeks and Romans is known quite well, But have we learned lessons from the circumstances of their rise from the ashes of the previous empires?

Oil age collapse conditions

Icon of the 20th century, the Oil age.

Icon of the 20th century, the Oil age.

Environmental problems/ agricultural degradation – mining and fracking
Hard rock mining and fracking, both are creating major environmental problems,  fracking threatens to poison the  water table important for agriculture and drinking water supplies. Fracking shows the true desperation to gain the last remaining combustible liquid hydrocarbons from the earth at the expense of any other current or future use of the soil. The oil age is ending. Remember the bronze age ended with an abundance of bronze, and there is still plentiful bronze now 3200 years later. As oil ends so does trade and large amounts of industrialized food production. In  sad irony oil is required for the industrial scale production of food, but destroying the land and water table required to grow the food to get the oil seems counter intuitive. Counter intuitive until you realize that corporatist thinking only focuses on profit and all other matter are externalized to the point of being non-existent. Incredibly blinkered thinking enshrined in corporate mentality.

Natural disasters -US Hurricanes, Earthquakes, oil void collapses?

The US has endured some significant hurricanes and ocean borne storms in the last 5 years in the region of the business banking and government hubs on the east coast of the USA. Not to forget deep water horizon a major oil exploration disaster poisoning fisheries and riparian zones in the south-east. Oil once removed from the ground leaves a void which i often filled with water to help float the oil to the surface. Water is unlike petroleum in that it does not create pressure by releasing gas in response to shock. A void filled with oil stabilized the void, how else could it have been in the ground so long? A void filled with water will not significantly out gas to pressurize the void. the water will instead seep into fractures and lubricate them (better than oil strangely) and exacerbate any earthquake conditions. eventually the void will collapse creating or amplifying an earthquake. How many of these void do you think there are? Are they a ticking time bomb ready to detonate at the end of the oil age?

Destabilizing technology – Internet, 3D printing, others?
The established order is under threat from many sources who seek to change the way things are done. Information can now be spread wide fast and low-cost. The 3D printer allows a thing to travel in information format and be replicated almost anywhere. A recent development in 3D printing is rifle parts, rifle are  in most places a  restricted (controlled) item. these controls are dissolving. A very strong parallel to iron make the sword common place in the  beginning of the iron age. Could the 3D printed rifle be the last gasp of the oil age? A large-scale war of ‘new sea people’ armed with plastic home printed guns?

Economic changes – Fiat currency under threat.
People are beginning to realize fiat currency is just a scam. The established order relies on this scam not being revealed as they are reliant on fiat currency to maintain the empire. Will a real economy emerge to challenge the old one? A great deal of the major parts of the economy are monopolies or are near monopolies, all primed for a single event  to collapse their networks.

A period of extended peace – The (ongoing) cold war
Did the cold war ever really finish or did the bad guy just get out sourced to N Korea? Starting in about 1946 we have about 67 years of relative peace in the world. WWI (1914 – 1918) and WW2 (1939-1945) were large wars designed to
accomplish two goals. reduce working class population and reinforce/reorganize states as the mechanisms of power with more ethnically homogenous populations. Even after WW2 had ended people were relocated all over Europe (and the world) based on ethnic lines.

WWI to reduce the population levels of working class people as they have become somewhat unnecessary due to industrialization. (37 million killed – soldiers and civilians ) (Spanish Flu adds another 20 – 50 million deaths)

WW2 to relocate the population of Europe and the middle east into artificial states and reinforce state power over the older established order of monarchs and emperors. (60 million killed –  soldiers and civilians )

1914- 1945 A period of 31 years where about 6% of the world’s population was killed,  the survivors became under the control of states (not ancestral monarchs) and the newly developed, city destroying, atomic bomb.

So in the last 67 years population have grown significantly, with no wars to cull out people, a population bubble is forming.

Complex extensive trade networks –  World trade and Globalization
Our economic networks are complex and fragile, more so than was ever possible in the bronze age, just in time supply and algorithmic trading being examples. Much of our world trade is based on oil, the transport of people, things and food; all reliant on oil. Oil as we know is running out. Trade networks face total collapse once oil becomes too expensive or unavailable.

Catastrophe design – Centralized power and control
Power centralized in a few places in the world, Washington DC (military),  City of London (financial), Vatican City (religious), Mecca (religious), Zürich (financial) Frankfurt (financial), Beijing (Military, Financial, Manufacturing). Four of these centers of power  are in Europe currently under its own economic and currency crisis. On the population map look at how power seems to be where population is small and concentrated. Three continents seem to have no power at all South America, Africa, Australia.

World population map. Stars indicate approximate location of world centers of power. L-R, Washington DC, City of London, Zurich - Switzerland, Frankfurt - Germany, Vatican City- Rome-Italy, Mecca Saudi Arabia, Beijing China . Notice how close the four European powers are together, centered around Zurich. Source image from  http://goumbook.com/?attachment_id=14413

World population map. Stars indicate approximate location of world centers of power. L-R, Washington DC, City of London, Zürich – Switzerland, Frankfurt – Germany, Vatican City- Rome-Italy, Mecca Saudi Arabia, Beijing China . Notice how close the four European powers are together, centered around Zürich. Source image from http://goumbook.com/?attachment_id=14413

Social upheaval – The bank  bailouts and Austerity
People are being robbed by their governments and are understandably angry, but what form will their resistance take, and how long will they wait before demanding change that can’t be ignored. Could fiat currency be phased out without significant transition problems? Europe with four significant centers of world power  in the grip of austerity and a unified currency that is rapidly loosing confidence. Is another European war in the future likely? Could the center of world power move after a collapse of European power, to one of the other centers of world power, Washington, Beijing or Mecca? Will people accept being squeezed economically into an even lower standard of living? When will people reach their breaking point and simply rebel?

Transition – To what and how long will it take?
People want life to be different, what do they want and how long will it take to achieve amid the chaos of transition? Will people fall into the trap of simply recreating the same unstable, unfair system all over again? Will another’ sea people’ arise? what role will the internet play in the end of oil and the beginning of something new? Could the internet reduce the transition time? Could the internet allow for a completely new type of economy based on 3D printing and virtually free information?

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Political correctness: What you need to know.

It seems that political correctness has its roots in Marxism. Critical theory is just  criticism without actually offering a solution because the solution (unspoken) is to destroy everything and replace it with Marxism.

having failed to get support from the working classes they turned to minority groups and academia to get support and created the language of political correctness.

Did you ever wonder what kind of politics the language was correct to?

Whats wrong with Marxism? Well Marx never had a job in his life so what exactly could he know about labor and economics?

Marxism has failed numerous times as an economic/political model because ultimately it’s an inefficient form of fascism.

Other forms of fascism are more efficient, not that it makes them inherently more justified, just better at distributing wealth and rewarding useful work.

It’s interesting to talk to people who use a lot of politically correct language in order to sound educated or intelligent, often quite quickly in a debate they become completely lost because their ideas have very little in in-depth analysis to them. They have simply not thought about what they have been told and rely on the flimsy arguments they were given and assume a theory (unproven) is a fact.

 

A theory is not a fact, and political correctness seems to be Marxism in disguise, that is a theory.

Seagulls, scarcity and politics

Seagulls live in an unpredictable environment. Many small meals and the occasional feast. This is evident in their behavior.  Seagulls spend a lot of time flying in search of food, and generally do so alone. When a seagull finds a small meal it quietly swoops down, eats it, and then returns to the search.

If a seagull finds a large meal such as a wash up of dead fish, It’s community spirit is activated and it lands and lets out a loud and distinctive call (in between mouth fulls) to all other seagulls. All seagulls come come to share a massive feast that might otherwise go to waste, being that it is more than one seagull could eat.

So the simple social contract seagulls have is similar to this: Every one spread out and search for food, if you find enough for just you, eat it, and keep looking, if you find the mother lode, shout out and everyone gets a meal.

A flock of seagulls converge on some food. from http://furiousphotos.com/2009/04/flock-of-seagulls/

These two different responses to scarcity and abundance in a stochastic (random) environment shows two different modes of of economic operation in line with two different economic situations.

Scarcity and abundance.

Interestingly, one mode is that of the rugged individualist in scarcity and the other is the socialist in  abundance. Lets be clear that seagulls have no government, kings, queens or gods. So both of these economic modes are anarchistic. So we have seagulls operating as anarcho capitalists in scarcity and anarcho syndicalists when faced with abundance, these modes of operation must be sustainable, or otherwise seagulls would have died out long ago.

It’s worth noting that seagulls are smart enough to pick up closed seashells and drop them onto hard packed sand in order to crack them open and eat the contents, and smart enough to develop two different modes of economic operation in scarcity and abundance.

Dumb birds, I think not.

Go and watch some seagulls and learn a bit about politics. It’s really funny to watch a seagull displaying dominance to scare other birds away from the food, and while busy doing this, the food scrap is then snatched by a third party.

Lesson: if you spend too much time asserting your rights to a found asset, you many not get an opportunity to actually benefit from the asset.

People, Networks, Databases and Fascism

A strange series of ideas to be a topic.

The database is a method of  recording, storing, sorting and retrieving information.

Back in the old physical-analogue world we had libraries and drawers filled with card indexes. For anyone that used that system, it was a slow process to find what you were looking for, and took a significant level of skill and labour to use and maintain.

But then came the innovation, a machine to automate some, and then eventually almost all of the process of the database. The first database was used for census purposes, innocent enough on the surface. Then Germany had a census in 1933. The company that made the first electromechanical database eventually was bought by the founder of IBM, their client was Nazi Germany. The Nazis needed a way to keep track of all possible opposition to their regime and exactly who was already dead or in prison. Not much point in sending thugs to a house of a man who was already executed and buried anonymously in a mass grave.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_and_the_Holocaust

So the Nazis needed to uniquely number people who could be trouble.

ID tattoo on the arm of a suspected dissenter who survived Auschwitz, Nazi Germany. Fascism is not subtle if you know what clues to look for.

So not only were the dissenters numbered, so where the prisons, the supposed type of dissent, in short everything was number for the database. To a machine everything is just a number, in a cold , clinical, unfeeling, morally vacuous way.

After this happened, the second world war started, and 5 years later ended. The surviving fascists deemed useful were absorbed by the fascist victors (operation paperclip) and the surviving dissenters ran as far as they could. Many survivors of prison camps were really serious about getting as far away as possible, and Melbourne, Australia (about as far as you can get from Germany) became home to one of the highest number of survivors of this period of fascism. Not surprisingly many of the ethnic and religious groups with historical roots to Germany of the 1930’s are quite evasive about census questions, or even refuse to reply to such requests for information.

So in short fascists love databases, it helps them feel in control, and it does give them some level of control when they attempt to crush dissent. The less databases your name and details are on, the safer you are from fascists.

The Database Join

This brings us to a subtle database concept: ‘the join’.

The join allows different databases to be used together and a more detailed picture can emerge. Imagine we start with a list of first names and next to each name is their favorite fruit. Next we have a separate database with fruits and the color of the fruit next to it. So then by joining these databases together on the common column of ‘fruit’, we would than have ‘name’, ‘fruit’ and ‘color’. Nothing sinister so far but as you can see the join allows the database to become more expansive, and offer even more related data.

In some countries joining government databases together is illegal, as it is too much of an invasion of privacy. What business is it of the government to know which fruit you like (or any other matter) ?

Data relationships

Before joining a database to another database, the technician must consider an important technical consideration: data relationships.

The database join visualized.

For the above example I will explain

One to One :John like apples only

One to Many :John likes apples and bananas and oranges

Many to One: John and Jane like  apples

Many to many: John and Jane like apples and bananas

Only the ‘One to Many’ and ‘One to One’ relationships can be easily modeled  in a database, and most fascists prefer systems that match that kind of data relationship.

The many to one relationship is really just a one to many relationship looked at from another direction, and is not too difficult to model in a database.

The many to many relationship is almost impossible to model in a conventional database and fascists really hate anything that looks like this as they cant control it.

Natural networks getting stronger or weaker.

A fascist is like a puppet master, many strings connect for the limbs of the puppet to his/her one hand. A ‘One to Many’ relationship and control is almost absolute.  The puppets under the puppet master could have their own puppets but in terms of the fascist puppet master the relationship is still one to many via the join of the initial puppet. But if additional strings were added between the existing strings, control of the puppets and its limbs would be lost and the puppet would be out of control. The fascist may be a puppet controlled by another puppet master.

The resulting arrangement of a healthy ‘Many to Many’ network would be like a web made by a drunken spider. It is a good  network. If you are reading this it means you are connected to a network, even if it is printed out and far from electricity and any for of connectivity that’s where it has come from. The internet is now everywhere, in  remote parts of Africa, emails and webpages are printed out and carried far into jungles for people to read. The internet was designed to be a destruction proof network, a central system simply couldn’t survive as there was one point of vulnerability which would collapse the entire system, the center.
This illustrates fascism’s weakness, once the center is gone fascism fails. in a network this is no center, no central point of catastrophic failure.

The ‘Many to Many’ relationship is the safest because it is outside of the control of the fascist puppet masters. There is no center, there is no single string to pull, no armchair control strategy, it’s simply too complex to control.

Fascists always wants centralization because it leads to central control which is fascist control.

Central banks, central planning, central control, ever wonder who is at the center?

Be independent, form you own connections with people, make up you own mind and resist all forms of centralization.

An example of a dangerous network to join.

http://map.occupy.net/

Fascists or their puppets trying to create a database of dissenters, whats next?

No serious activist or dissenter would join a mysterious database.

Pinocchio. He was a puppet until he stopped telling lies, then he became a real little boy. Subtle message in a children’s story.

<more to come>

Social parasites are as old as social organisation itself.

People are not the first creatures to create complex hierarchical societies, the termites and ant were doing it millions of years before us.

In fact Ants specifically have attempted almost every type of society we can think of: scavenging, farming, livestock, war, slavers, nomadic, subsistence etc.

Because of their flexibility and adaptability they have been very successful and are found everywhere except Antarctica.

Because of their successes, other creatures (the social parasites) have adapted many ways to effectively live off the ants.

Some disguise themselves visually as ants, some are expert on producing the colony identification smell to be accepted, some are even other species of ants.

But one parasite stands out as truly remarkable: the Ophiocordyceps unilateralis fungus (first identified in 1865).

It was originally  thought this fungus was  unique, but as of 2011, 3 similar fungi more have been discovered.

Most ants are largely immune to attack by fungi because they produce a toxin called 2-phenylacetic acid, which kills most fungi and bacteria. They spread this ‘disinfectant’ as they walk around.

How ever leaf cutter ants (Atta) don’t produce this chemical disinfectant because they are fungus farmers. They don’t actually eat the leaves they cut and carry, they feed the leaves to a mound of cultivated fungus in their nest and then eat parts of the fungus. It is similar to the way people make cheese by collecting milk.

So ant of the order ‘Atta’ are vulnerable to fungal infection.

Here’s how the Ophiocordyceps unilateralis infection life cycle occurs.

An ant makes contact with a fungal spore which enters the ants body.       ( infection / infiltration)

The spore releases chemicals in the ants body to take over its behavior.       ( take over the brain and control actions)

The ant then attempts to climb somewhere high into a leaf or twig.        ( take a prominent position)

The ant then make a death grip bite onto the leaf or twig it is standing on.      ( paralyze the host with a death grip )

The ant then starves to death while the fungus grows larger inside the ants body.      ( slowly kill the host, while growing larger )

The fungus grows so large it bursts out of the ant body with huge chitin horns.     (out grow the host)

Often them the fungus anchors the ants body to the leaf or twin it is on.      (cement dead host in place as a vehicle for propagation)

The fungal horns then produce fruiting bodies which then produce and release spores falling onto other ants.     (propagation)

Cycle repeats

Ant killed my brain controlling parasitic fungus. Ophiocordyceps unilateralis http://gingerdead.com/2011/05/04/parasitic-fungus/

There are parasites in social and political groups that operate the same way as Ophiocordyceps unilateralis fungus acts towards ants.